1 Singapore is an independent city-state in southeastern Asia, consisting of one major island -the Singapore island-and more than 50 small islands, located off the southern tip of Malay. The city of Singapore, the capital of the country, is at the southeastern end of the Singapore Island; it is one of the most important port cities and commercial centers of Southeast Asia. The total area of the republic is 640 sq.km.
2 Low-lying Singapore Island has no outstanding relief(轮廓鲜明的) features. A central area of hills rises to the maximum height of 176m. The country has a wet tropical climate, with an average annual temperature of 27.20°C. The average annual rainfall is 2.413 mm, the wettest months are November through January.
3 Singapore is governed under a constitution of 1959. A president, elected to a four-year term, is head of state, and a prime minister is head of government. The president used to be selected by Parliament, but by 1991 constitutional amendment (修正案), the president is now elected directly by the people. The Parliament is the law-making body with its 81 members popularly elected.
4 In the late 1980s the country had some 290 primary schools with 278,300 pupils and 160 secondary schools with 200,200 students. The main institution of higher education are the National University of Singapore, several technical colleges, and a teachers college.
5 Singapore has one of the highest standards of living of any country in Asia. In the late 1980s the gross domestic product was estimated at $23.7 billion, or $8,870 per person. The fishing industry is centered on the port of During, on southwestern Singapore Island. Industry has grown rapidly since the 1960s, and Singapore now produces a diversity(多样化的) of goods, including chemicals, electronic items, clothing, and processed foods, etc. Shipbuilding and petroleum refining are also important.
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